Modern as Metaphor: Where the Tate Stands in a Post-Brexit World
编者注：本文最初发表于2016年6月30日。虽然围绕英国退出欧盟条款的争论仍在继续进行，但泰特美术馆仍然是伦敦和英国的标志。同时这座建筑也成为新斗争的象征：首都精英与普通大众。随着英国政局的不断变化，这座建筑的未来会如何？这或许会非常有趣。 ——执行编辑，Katherine Allen
英国的建筑师经历了一个月的巨大起伏。在Herzog＆de Meuron设计的泰特现代美术馆扩建部分（俗称Switch House）于6月17日星期五开幕后，英国也于6月23日星期四宣布其打算（计划不周）离开欧盟的愿望。很容易看出这两个事件是分开的，没有明显的重叠。但事实上，泰特美术馆似乎与英国脱欧的决定存在某种奇怪的共生关系——如果没有其他原因，那就是大力宣扬反对脱欧的观点。
Editor’s Note: This article was originally published on 30 June, 2016. While the debate surrounding the terms of the UK’s exit from the European Union continues to rage, the Tate remains a steady icon for London and the UK. But the building has also become a symbol in a new fight: one between the capital’s elites and the general public. As the political sands in Britain continue to shift, it may be interesting to see how – and with whom – the building aligns in the future. – Katherine Allen, Managing Editor
Architects in the United Kingdom have been subjected to a month of monumental highs and lows. After Herzog & de Meuron’s Tate Modern extension (known as Switch House) opened Friday, June 17, the following Thursday, June 23, the country proclaimed its (ill-planned) desire to leave the European Union. It would be easy to see the two events as separate, with no obvious overlap. But in fact the Tate seems to have an odd symbiosis with the Brexit decision – if in no other way than by promoting a vision emphatically against it.
该博物馆成立于1897年，当时糖业巨头亨利泰特爵士（Sir Henry Tate）将他的绘画作品和8万英镑捐赠给了英国首都，形成了泰特美术馆，自1916年以来，该博物馆一直是展现伦敦现代艺术的主要场所。
Making the Tate Modern
Chatter of the Tate Modern’s expansion began in the mid-aughts, years earlier than had been originally forecasted based on visitor projections. The original building, which opened in May of 2000 and is now known as Boiler House, was anticipated to have 2 million annual visitors. Just over a month after opening, the museum had already received its millionth patron, and by 2014 attendance had climbed to 5.7 million per year, making it the most visited modern and contemporary art museum in the world.
Founded in 1897 when sugar magnate Sir Henry Tate donated his paintings collection and ￡80,000 to the British capital, forming the Tate Gallery, the museum has been London’s principal venue for modern art since 1916.
跨越十九世纪到二十世纪，对独立现代艺术博物馆的需求在早期就得到了认可，但直到20世纪90年代初才得到解决。如今的泰特现代美术馆起源于伦敦市中心的一个位置不佳的Bankside发电厂，它位于泰晤士河南侧的圣保罗大教堂对面。该发电厂由贾尔斯·吉尔伯特·斯科特（Giles Gilbert Scott）于1947年设计，1963年开始运营，但在1981年迅速没落，并在随后的十年内几乎被拆除。1994年4月，Bankside被选为泰特美术馆新馆的所在地，1995年1月Herzog＆de Meuron赢得了该建筑的设计竞赛。
以洞察力著称的泰特美术馆负责人尼古拉斯·塞罗塔（Nicholas Serota）看到了Bankside的规模优势——一个规模庞大的博物馆永远不会以同样的成本从零开始建造，并且还意识到该场地为未来扩展提供了可能性。博物馆于2005年宣布了这一计划，当时Herzog＆de Meuron被再次选中进行扩建设计。当时有人表示此次扩建将在2012年伦敦奥运会期间及时完成，增加60％的画廊空间，但在金融危机爆发后，一切都化为乌有。
Always straddling between the nineteenth and twentieth century, the need for a separate modern art museum was acknowledged early on, but not addressed until the early 1990s. What is now the Tate Modern began as Bankside, an ill-placed power station at the heart of London, on the south side of the Thames opposite St. Paul’s Cathedral. Designed by Giles Gilbert Scott in 1947, the power plant began operations in 1963 but was quickly decommissioned in 1981, and was almost demolished in the subsequent decade. In April 1994, Bankside was selected as the home for the Tate’s new outpost, and Herzog & de Meuron won the building’s design competition in January 1995.
Known for his clairvoyance, Tate Director Nicholas Serota saw the advantage of Bankside’s scale – a museum of its size could never have been built for the same cost from scratch – and also recognized that the site offered the possibility for future expansion. The museum announced its plans for such a proposal in 2005, when Herzog & de Meuron were selected again for the expansion. At the time, it was stated that the addition – which would add 60 percent more gallery space – would be completed in time for 2012 Olympics in London, but all bets were off after the onset of the Financial Crisis.
在2005年的公告发布后，Herzog＆de Meuron紧接着在2006年夏天公布了他们的博物馆初步设计。该方案展示了一堆不规则、不稳定的直线型玻璃盒子，逐渐变细成锯齿状。这个当时全玻璃的扩建部分呼应了Herzog & de Meuron在最初翻修期间对贾尔斯·吉尔伯特·斯科特（Giles Gilbert Scott）建筑进行的一次重要的结构扩建，即光滑的“光块”。相比之下，你可以看看2010年Herzog & de Meuron在为瑞士阿尔施维尔完工的Actelion总部大楼。该设施采用了类似的，更线性的几何形状堆叠，融合在一起，形成了一个结构整体。
正如塞罗塔所指出的，泰特美术馆参观人数的增长也刺激了博物馆藏品的范围及数量呈指数级扩张。塞罗塔在接受《艺术新闻报》的采访时，描述Switch House与Boiler House合并后的首次展览时说到：“我们展示女性作品的比例要更多，地域分布更广，摄影作品也更多。”与2000年的泰特现代美术馆相比，这都是巨大的变化。在20世纪90年代，在1989年11月9日柏林墙倒塌之后，在2001年9月11日之前，2000年泰特现代美术馆在经历了千禧年和乐观、包容和繁荣之后终于开业，我们现在可能会满怀喜悦地重新审视这十年来的色彩。
After the 2005 announcement, Herzog & de Meuron unveiled their initial design for the museum in the summer of 2006. The proposal revealed an irregular and slightly precarious heap of rectilinear glass boxes, gradually tapering in a ziggurat-like shape. The then-all-glass extension echoed the glossy “light block” that was Herzog & de Meuron’s one significant structural addition to the Giles Gilbert Scott building during the original renovation. For a point of comparison, one can look to Herzog & de Meuron’s headquarters building for Actelion in Allschwil, Switzerland, completed in 2010. The facility employs a similar – albeit more linear – heap of geometric forms, fused together, forming a structural whole.
As noted by Serota, the growth of the Tate’s attendance also spurred an exponential expansion of the range and scope of works found in the museum’s collections. Describing the inaugural display in the combined Switch House and Boiler House in an interview with The Art Newspaper, Serota stated, “There is [a] much higher incidence of us showing work by women, a much broader geographical spread and much more photography. These are big changes compared with Tate Modern 2000.” Formulated in the 1990s, after the 11/09/89 fall of the Berlin Wall and before 09/11/2001, the opening of Tate Modern in 2000 came off the heels of the millennium and the optimism, inclusiveness, and prosperity, that color a decade which we might now reconsider with fondness.
在英国公投退欧后的第二天，第一位获得2000年透纳奖（Turner Prize）的非英裔摄影师，Wolfgang Tillmans写下了自己对新的现实和时代的沮丧反应。Tillmans通过设计一系列海报表达了自己对“留欧”的支持，这些海报旨在推广欧洲继续统一的普遍观点。
Tate After Brexit: Modern as Metaphor
On the day following the Brexit vote, the photographer Wolfgang Tillmans – who was the first non-English person to win the Turner Prize in 2000 – wrote his own crestfallen reaction to the new reality and era ushered in by the decision. Tillmans expressed his own advocacy for “Remain” by designing a series of posters meant to promote popular reasoning for Europe to continue to be unified.
In his short, stream of consciousness style reaction to the vote, Tillmans describes how the Tate’s opening in 2000 seemed like the coronation to an age of openness that was cultivated during the 90s. And in retrospect, it is easy to see the parallels the new museum of art of the twentieth and twenty-first century, intent on collecting and establishing a global narrative for art, as a pinnacle achievement on a path towards greater acceptance.
在最初的设计公布两年后，玻璃盒的设计方案被否决了，Herzog & de Meuron在原有场地上创造了一个类似于块状挤压物的延展剪切，形成了一种类似于斯科特建筑的简约风格。卫报建筑评论家奥利弗·温赖特（Oliver Wainwright）指出：“扩建部分的雕琢形式是各方面共同作用的结果，受到周围光线以及对岸圣保罗大教堂圆顶无形的景观保护线的影响。”
Two years after the original design was unveiled, the glass-box proposal was out, and in its place, Herzog & de Meuron created a version of the extension sheared of its block-like extrusions, establishing a form that had the austerity of the original Scott building. As noted by The Guardian architecture critic Oliver Wainwright, “The faceted form of the extension is a result of the forces acting on it from all sides, sculpted by its neighbors’ rights to light and the invisible lines of protected views to the dome of St Paul’s Cathedral across the river.”
温赖特将他的中世纪风格延申到了Switch House的整体部形象上，将其与“类似于防御的瞭望塔”的形式进行对比，这是为了防止地产开发商在前银行的势力范围内进一步扩张。考虑到Serota在泰特美术馆中的多样化使命以及扩建部分的防御外观，或许我们应该从一个新的角度来看待Switch House的建设，以及从玻璃到砖的重点转变？
The building’s facade had also changed from glass to brick; translucence shelved for opacity. Although similar to Bankside in the of use of brick as a skin or sheet over a concrete substructure, the actual appearance is clearly distinct. The brickwork of Switch House is a lattice of double-bond bricks threaded onto steel rods, appropriately compared to “knitwear” by the architects – or in the words of Oliver Wainwright, “hung like chainmail…draped over a muscular concrete cage like a masonry veil.”
Wainwright extends his medieval analogy to the full stature of Switch House, comparing the form with one that “rears up like a defensive watchtower, there to ward off property developers from encroaching any further on the former Bankside power station.” Considering Serota’s position on the diverse mission of the Tate, and in light of the extension’s defensive appearance, perhaps we should view the construction of Switch House and the emphatic departure from glass to brick in a new light?
考虑到泰晤士河南岸的其他发展，奥利弗•温赖特最近为《哈佛设计杂志》（Harvard Design Magazine）撰写了一篇社论，题为《Fortress London: the New US Embassy and the Rise of anti – terrorism Urbanism》，并发表在最新一期（2016年第42期）：寻求保护（Run for Cover）中。在他的文章里，温赖特用KieranTimberlake设计的美国驻九榆树新大使馆作为起点，讨论了他所谓的新型“焦虑的城市主义”。
Museum as Social Condenser
Considering other developments on the south side of the Thames, Oliver Wainwright recently wrote an editorial for the Harvard Design Magazine, “Fortress London: The New US Embassy and the Rise of Counter-Terror Urbanism,” in its current issue: Run for Cover! No. 42 S/S 2016. In his essay, Wainwright uses the new US Embassy in Nine Elms, designed by KieranTimberlake, as a launch point for a discussion of what he calls a new kind of “anxious urbanism.”
美国大使馆的设计在很大程度上受到外表“透明”的防护元素的驱动——墙壁由6英寸的玻璃制成，地面的凹凸不平，钢和混凝土柱隐藏在景观中等等。KieranTimberlake表示，建筑的灵感来自欧洲的城堡，因此与泰特美术馆的新外观形成了一种奇怪的共生关系。虽然现实是防御工事保护着大使馆，但是“Switch House”的防御工事是经过美化和装饰的——砖砌保护层，裂缝状的窗户，以及10楼的“鸟巢”瞭望台，这些建筑似乎都遵循了同一种防御策略来保护建筑内部。在一个民族主义觉醒的后英国脱欧世界里，Herzog & de Meuron的结构选择实际上是博物馆消除西方化、全面推广艺术所必要的措施，尽管这其实只是一种象征意义上的堡垒。
The design of the US Embassy is heavily driven by defensive elements disguised in its outwardly “transparent” appearance – walls made of six inch glass, a set-back and raised ground condition, steel and concrete bollards hidden in the landscape, and others – KieranTimberlake has stated that the building’s inspiration came from European castles, and thus creates a strange symbiosis with the Tate’s new appearance. While real life fortifications protect the embassy, those of Switch House – the protective layer of bricks, the slit-like windows, and the “crow’s nest” lookout on the building’s tenth floor – are aestheticized and ornamental, but the buildings do seem to share a defensive strategy protecting what happens within. What if Herzog and de Meuron’s structural choices – although only fortress-like in an iconographic sense – are in fact a metaphor for the defenses required by a museum that is promoting a de-Westernized, all-inclusive narrative for art in a post-Brexit world with nationalism on the rise?
奥利弗•温赖特在为《哈佛设计杂志》（Harvard Design Magazine）撰写的这篇文章以一种焦虑的口吻结尾，他不赞成这种“fortress urbanism”，即对公民生活的反对和阻碍，但幸运的是，泰特美术馆的策略不过是一种烟幕弹。Switch House表现出一种对内部接纳氛围的防御形象。或许他们从玻璃建筑到砖块建筑的转变，与其说是为了延续河岸的过去与未来，不如说是一个有先见之明的决定，即实施建筑防御工事，以促进一种目前仍然存在疑问的包容性氛围。
Ending on an anxious note in his essay for the Harvard Design Magazine, Oliver Wainwright discourages this “fortress urbanism” that is an opposition and obstruction to civic life, but luckily the Tate’s strategies are a mere smokescreen. Switch House proffers an image of defense as a foil for the atmosphere of acceptance that lies within. Maybe Herzog & de Meuron’s shift from glass to brick was not so much about continuity between the past and future of Bankside, but was instead a prescient decision to implement the architectural fortifications necessary for a building promoting a mood of inclusiveness that now lies in question?
In her essay for The Financial Times, “How Tate Modern transformed the way we see art,” Jackie Wullschlager expresses how in making us feel small, the Tate Modern has consistently allowed viewers to see beyond the individual: “[the museum’s] beyond-human scale exerts a particular kind of mastery: it encourages us to surrender to, rather than closely engage with, works on display. This is especially the case in regard to its immense installations, but the effect ripples on in the exhibition galleries. Counter-intuitively, feeling small brings liberation, the excitement of being swept away, not needing to judge or even make sense of the museum or the art.”
As Oliver Wainwright notes in his review of Switch House, the findings of a survey of patrons of the Tate Modern found that one of their main reasons for visiting the museum was to encounter other people – in other words, art museum as social condenser. Building on this, Wainwright admires how the museum’s new interior is equipped with nooks and niches in what makes for “a people-watching paradise.”And as Wullschlager remarks in The Financial Times, museums in the twenty-first century are “a place of encounter, social nexus, a contemporary agora.”
Switch House now appears to symbolize the chasm that has been lodged between conservative and progressive politics. The inclusiveness of the Tate may live on in its interior space, but the facade suggests that the progressiveness of the art world is something increasingly rare. It begs the question, should architecture emphasize the insular defense of these progressive visions, or seek to promote them outside its walls?