荷兰角港至鹿特丹段堤坝滨水三角洲景观模式研究／The Dyke Platform as a sturdy Delta landscape extending from Rotterdam to Hook of Holland
THE DYKE PLATFORM / Rotterdamse Academie van Bouwkunst
The delta landscape as a link between city and river
The primary flood defence designed as a dyke platform with a versatile urban delta landscape on the right bank of the river Maas between Rotterdam and Hook of Holland.
被绿植覆盖的荷兰斯希丹的三角洲景观模式：1.连接城市与河流的水渠；2.两条滨河道路；3.考虑潮汐影响的自然驳岸；4.植被丰富的滨河住宅区；5.Schiewijk，一个新的城市区；6.Schie历史区域恢复／The proposed Delta landscape at Tree-shaded Schiedam 1 Ramps connect the city with the river; 2 Routes along the natural banks of the river; 3 Natural banks with tidal influence; 4 Leafy residential area on the river banks; 5 Schiewijk, a new city district; 6 Historic Schie restored
One consequence of an open Southwestern Delta with a permanent navigable connection (Nieuwe Waterweg) with the North Sea is that the existing flood defences will need heightening. The strategy in this design consists of coupling Delta investments to strengthen the dykes with eradicating physical trouble spots in the region. The investments offer the region an opportunity to both raze existing barriers in the cities and develop dynamic waterfronts with a wealth of residential neighbourhoods, businesses, nature and recreation areas. In this study the primary flood defence is no longer regarded as an autonomous civil-engineering subject but as a stepping-off point for the future urban design challenges facing cities on the water. In hitching together urbanism, landscape architecture and safety, the right Maas bank acquires a Delta landscape with new living environments which forge a link between the cities and the river.
在鹿特丹Buizengat内港的三角洲景观：1.节奏分明的MAAS大道；2.绿色驳岸与娱乐元素；3.以闸门为防洪堤的Buizengat大桥；4.城市长廊；5.Buignen游艇港口；6.新克拉林斯桥；7.连接城市与河流的缓坡平台／The proposed Delta landscape at Buizengat inner harbour in Rotterdam 1 Compact Maas boulevard; 2 Green banks with a recreational component; 3 Buizengat bridge with a floodgate as flood defence; 4 City Promenade; 5 Buizengat yacht harbour; 6 Nieuwe Kralingse bridge; 7 Gentle ramps within the platform connect city and river
To achieve this means relinquishing the idea of merely raising the primary dyke. The slogan is ‘From monotonous dyke to the Dyke Platform as ground plan for a varied Delta landscape’. This landscape acts as a broad, secure Delta dyke. It ties the city to the river by opting for strong physical connections and hitching these to continuous routes along, on and to the river.
斯希丹绿地，位于堤坝最顶层，人们也可以沿着坡道走向河边／Tree-shaded Schiedam, living on the topmost treads with others stepping down to the river
从坡道远眺河道对岸节奏紧凑的城市／View of the compact city from the promenade with treads interconnected by ramps
The Dyke Platform consists of several levels or ‘treads’. This differentiation creates variety in the types of landscape and in how these are fitted out. Some treads are lowered to give more room for the rivers in times of high water. In the interests of safety, an unbroken height line of 6.2 m +NAP and of variable width stitches the sequence of treads into a single landscape. The treads within the Dyke Platform are attuned to the geomorphology of the soil in the wider Rotterdam area. The soil’s genetic material has always displayed an array of differences in height, ranging from 2.8 m up to 3.6 m +NAP, brought about by the river’s natural sedimentation. Multiple treads of different height are created by mechanically raising the harbour areas and the primary flood defence to 5.4 m +NAP. By widening and thus also strengthening the flood defence structure the genetic material and mechanical heightenings are redefined and hitched together as a broad, secure Delta dyke. The differences in height between treads creates a public space consisting of woods, water meadows, parks, stone quays and gently sloping river banks. Added to this rural framework are new urban milieus with a welter of development types, densities and programmes related to the river and to the city. The areas are stitched together by routes at all scales including local and regional walking and cycling routes. Going for a drive across the Dyke Platform will be an attraction, with its succession of panoramic views of the river and its banks, the cities and the new residential surroundings. The old peat channels and waterways within the platform present a water network connecting the cities with the Maas. Floodgates, bridges and yacht harbours mark the key intersections. These sites figure prominently within the Dyke Platform and constitute the hub of the recreation network.
“平台”景观设计——乡土模式：受淡水冲刷的平台景观与农业组成部分——城郊模式：沿河岸生活与休闲娱乐的结合——城市公式：紧凑的城市与综合入水斜坡／Design of ‘treads’ – rural formula: differentiation in treads with buffering of fresh water and an agricultural component – suburban formula: living along the river banks with a recreational component – urban formula: compact city with integrated ramps.